The Whiteness of the Weasel (Part 3)

Portrait of Cecilia Gallerani (Lady with the Ermine), about 1488

Leonardo da Vinci: “Lady with an Ermine,” c. 1489-1490

A brief digression now:  a sidebar in my discussion of weasels in Vermont.

Consider the painting above and the two splendid subjects it portrays—one a paragon of the species Homo sapiens, the other of Mustela erminia.

At some point around 1490, Leonardo da Vinci painted this portrait of Cecilia Gallerani, a young Milanese noblewoman. Cecilia was fifteen or sixteen years old when she sat for Leonardo. Hailing from a family affiliated with Leonardo’s patron, Ludovico Sforza, the Duke of Milan, Cecilia was Sforza’s mistress. She may have been pregnant at the time of her sitting for this portrait; in May of 1491, the Duke acknowledged  that Cecilia had borne his son. The ermine she holds is symbolically resonant in terms of her relationship with the duke:  first, because the Sforza family crest included an ermine among its heraldic elements; and second, because during the Italian Renaissance, the weasel was associated with pregnancy.

In any case, “Lady with an Ermine” is a remarkable portrait, as beautiful in its own way as Leonardo’s painting of Lisa Gherardini, the subject of “La Gioconda,” the Mona Lisa, and as serene and enigmatic.

And the ermine? His or her name has been lost in the mists of time.  All we know is that Cecilia had to settle for being Leonardo’s second-most famous model, while the critter in her arms goes down to posterity as the most famous weasel in history.

The Whiteness of the Weasel (Part 2)

 Photo credit: animals town.com


Photo credit: animals town.com

I have always hated killing animals, including rodents. This aversion has been a longtime city-dweller’s luxury and hypocritical besides: although I was completely vegetarian during my twenties and early thirties, I now eat meat once or twice per week.

Photo credit: "D.R." on rumbosdelperu.com

Photo credit: “D.R.” on rumbosdelperu.com

Rodents aren’t on the menu in our household, but during the 1960s and 70s, when I lived in Peru off and on for almost three years, I periodically sampled picante de cuy—spicy grilled guinea pig—which is standard fare in the indigenous cultures of the Andes. But I can also recall feeling deep sadness from the age of five and older when I found dead mice in the snap-traps that my parents had set in our family home. The sleek, glossy fur … The slim tails …  The tiny paws with those perfectly formed, finger-like claws …  The shiny, midnight-black eyes …  Killing these animals seemed an injustice.

2434After graduating from college in 1975, I shared a thin-walled, drafty little bungalow with my girlfriend at the time. Judith and I were avid yogis. One of the precepts we followed was ahimsa, the practice of nonviolence. In addition to being strict vegetarians, we expressed our commitment to ahimsic principles by avoiding any actions that might result in the death of another sentient being. Even flies venturing into our little house benefited from our pacific attitudes: we caught them in jars and released them outside. The notion of setting a spring trap to kill mice was unacceptable. How, then, could we cope with the vermin that raided our pantry, scattered droppings throughout the house, skittered across the floor at night, and at one point even scampered over us in our bed? The infestation was intolerable—but so was the notion of slaughtering the creatures that caused it. Nowadays it’s not difficult to purchase a non-lethal mousetrap, but no manufacturer had marketed anything of the sort back then. Even the Havahart company, well known for making traps designed to catch raccoons, squirrels, and other animals, produced nothing at the time small enough for catching mice. Undeterred, I purchased the smallest Havahart trap available, which was constructed of steel wires too widely spaced to constrain a mouse, and I used surgical sutures to stitch pieces of window screen around the whole device. Judith and I then proceeded to catch a shocking number of mice, sometimes two or three per day, sixteen to eighteen per week, which we deported to a park five or six blocks from our cottage. Problem solved; karma unsullied.

 Photo credit: Havahart


Photo credit: Havahart

The modus I employed decades later as a family man battling squirrels and mice in suburban New Jersey riffed on the earlier methodology. Squirrels proved to be manageable invaders—easy to catch, easy to deport to a nearby nature preserve. The result was a war of attrition, not of victory, but I prevailed against my foes. Attempting to spare mice through the use of nonlethal mousetraps, however, often produced frustrating outcomes. Tiny creatures don’t last long without food and water. More than once I found my quarry alive but debilitated inside the trap: terrified, hungry, thirsty, exhausted, fur spiky and damp with urine. Sometimes I would forget about the traps altogether, which led now and then to my discovering a dead mouse that had surely died a slow, painful death rather than a quick, painless one.

And the new critter—the snow-white rodent that suddenly appeared in our house on Hyland Hill? How, I wondered, should I respond to her arrival?

 Photo credit: lynxeds.com


Photo credit: lynxeds.com

A few days after spotting this invader in the garage, I learned from a little Internet research that I’d seen an ermine. This species, also known as the short-tailed weasel, is classified as Mustela erminea and, according to one guide I consulted, “is distinguished from the least weasel (Mustela nivalis) by its larger size and longer tail [and its] prominent black tip.” (Is there a most weasel, too?) Dark and two-toned in warm weather—sandy brown on the back and head, creamy tan on the chest and belly—the ermine’s fur turns pure white in winter. This snowy coat makes the animal’s large, round eyes even more striking than they would look otherwise. The species inhabits territory spanning most of the North American continent. “As with the least weasel, mouse-like rodents predominate in the stoat’s diet,” the guide’s author notes, using the British name for the same creature. “However, unlike the least weasel, which almost exclusively feeds on small voles, the stoat regularly preys on larger rodent species.” Was it possible, then, that because of the ermine’s dietary preferences, any effort I might make to trap and deport ours (I have already started to regard her as “ours”) would be counterproductive? Far from infesting the house, she might be a useful ally in holding down other rodents. Some members of the weasel family will even attack and kill rats. These aspects of the situation suggested that peaceful co-existence might serve both the human and mustelan species residing on our property. On the other hand, weasels burrowing through the walls could easily damage the expensive insulation that we’ve installed to keep the house warm in winter. How, then, should Edith and I cope with the dilemma we faced?

 Photo credit: thephotonaturalist.com


Photo credit: thephotonaturalist.com

Night Fliers (Part 3 – Conclusion)

snow #1

It’s been a tough winter.  The toughest winter of all in this country has been what the snow-assaulted, snow-beleaguered, snow-burdened Bostonians have been (and are still) suffering through.  So, as a small virtual respite from cold weather, I’m offering the conclusion to my series of posts about moths.  The incident related here took place a few years ago in August . . . thus the profusion of flowers and, unexpectedly, the creature we found among them.

 ◊    ◊    ◊

On the one-ton temple bell
a moon-moth, folded into sleep,
sits still.

––Buson

flowers #1One summer afternoon, during a visit from our friend Dianne, my wife and I show her the front flowerbeds. The previous owners of the house had operated a commercial flower business on Long Island for many decades, and they had lavished great skill and attention on their own property as well, so the gardens on Hyland Hill delighted us from the outset with their size and the variety and splendor of their plantings. Now Edith and I want to show them off to Dianne, herself an accomplished gardener. The front bed is especially lush at that point of the summer.

Dianne is impressed. At one point, however, as she comments on the various flowers and their proper care, she suddenly interrupts herself and exclaims, “Look, a baby hummingbird!”

What she points out is so small––just a little over an inch long––that I can’t see it at first. Soon it is unmistakable. Flitting, hovering, darting about, this little bird pokes its needle-narrow beak into the tiniest flowers, then withdraws, then angles about to probe the next bloom.

flowers #5

A stirring sight! I have long delighted in these tiny, unimaginably agile creatures. Here now is one even smaller than the miniscule birds I’ve observed in Mexico, Colorado, Peru, Singapore, and elsewhere. It doesn’t seem possible that something so delicate, so beautiful, so perfect can exist.

The three of us watch in silence for a long time.

Something soon puzzles me. Yes, the wings beat so fast asflowers #4 to be almost invisible. Somehow they seem different, though, not quite as rapid as what I’ve seen on other hummingbirds in the past. A consequence of this one’s size, perhaps?  Or of its youth? I can’t even guess. Yes, the tiny bird pokes its beak into the flowers . . . but somehow with a slightly different motion, or in a slightly different way, from what I’ve observed in the past. Intrigued, I edge closer to get a better look. The bird may or may not notice me, but in any case it keeps moving from flower to flower. I expect it to zip away at a moment, but it allows me to draw near.

Then I see something I would never have expected: antennae. Stepping closer still, I spot another feature out of keeping with a hummingbird’s: legs that dangle from the tiny body. Two legs . . . No, four legs . . . No, six.

 Source:  Crex Meadows, www.sciwindwolf.org


Source: Crex Meadows,
http://www.sciwindwolf.org

The hummingbird isn’t a hummingbird at all––it’s a moth. As I learn later, it‘s Hemaris thysbe, the so-called hummingbird clearwing moth. First identified in 1775 by Johan Christian Fabricius, a Danish naturalist, members of this species are common throughout the entire eastern half of the United States and in much of Europe; and, according to several articles I’ve read, they are frequently mistaken for hummingbirds because of their coloration and fast-moving wings. They may also have contributed to the legend of faeries in England and elsewhere. Our perceptual error in the garden is understandable.

But at that moment, the moth itself—delicate, gentle, languid in its motions—transfixes all three of us simply for existing, simply for being there. I am not a mystic who feels drawn to see the moth, whether immolated or merely airborne, as a promise of Reality beyond reality, of Life beyond life. Moths are intriguing in the moment and for the moment. I’m not convinced that there is transfiguration or metamorphosis of what lies right before us. There is no fleshly transcendence, only immanence. There is perfection in the here-and-now: the day warm and bright, the air still, the flowers resplendent, the hummingbird-impostor moth beautiful and beguiling as she makes her rounds among the blossoms.

*   *   *

Notes

Yosa Buson. Haiku Master Buson (Yuki Sawa, tr.; Edith Siefert, ed.). Torrance, California: Heian International, Inc., 1978.

Fabricius, Johan Christian. Biographical Sketches in The Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1901, pp. 61-62.

Ice of the Month Club – Shipment #3

Snowfall continues––three inches one day, two the next, six the next, four the next.  The snow itself is light but adds up and stays put.  Edith and I estimate that there’s a yard of snowpack on our meadow, and the piles around our parking area stand five, six, even seven feet tall.  More problematic is what accumulates on the roof.  A foot of snow spread out on a roof can weigh many hundreds of pounds.  Now and then we use a bizarre tool called a roof rake––essentially a wide, flat, transverse scoop attached to a thirty-foot aluminum pole––to pull the snow down.  The front porch remains a special problem:  so flat and deep that removing snow is difficult.  Somehow we manage. One strange benefit of snow on the porch roof, however, is that it slides forward, curves, thins, and forms a curtain that’s often beautiful.  This situation created December’s shipment from the Ice of the Month Club.  Here, now, is Shipment #3––a 20-inch span of thicker, denser fringe.  Courtesy of a salmon-hued dawn:  salmon-hued ice. ice #2

The Whiteness of the Weasel (Part 1)

IMG_0397 - Version 2

We are not alone. I’ve known since boyhood that houses often have critters––that the structures we humans perceive as ours often contain other denizens who don’t happen to share this proprietary attitude. The resulting interspecies disagreement often leads to conflict. During twenty-five years of residence in suburban New Jersey, for instance, I fought a low-intensity war against the squirrels on the property that Edith and I owned there. These cute troublemakers persistently invaded and nested in our attic, and I resolutely set traps to catch and relocate them to a nearby nature preserve. The result: nearly three hundred squirrels deported over the course of a quarter-century. Following this and other experiences, I’m not surprised that our house on Hyland Hill would appeal to wildlife, nor am I shocked to hear scratchy sounds coming from the ceiling and the walls.

Neither am I astonished one January morning when Edith announces: “There’s a rat in the bathroom!” She utters these words emphatically but without alarm.

“A rat? Are you sure?”

“It’s big, it’s white, and it has huge black eyes.” Having closed the door, she has trapped this critter in the room.

I’m puzzled by her description. It’s true that a large rodent might well be a rat, but I’m surprised by the color. Most wild rats are gray, brown, or black. I’ve never heard of one that’s white. I tell Edith I’ll investigate; I ease into the bathroom; I look around. I sit on the closed toilet for a while and wait in silence. There’s neither sight nor sound of an intruding animal. I don’t doubt that she has spotted something, but whatever she saw has somehow escaped.

ermine_ASM588A day later, after Edith has left Vermont for a work assignment, I prepare the house for my own week out of town. One of my chores is to move firewood from the attached garage into the house and stock two racks near the wood stoves. I make multiple trips into the garage. On my third or fourth trip, something catches my attention: a rustling sound in the far right corner. I can’t see what’s making it. Then, after fifteen or twenty seconds, I catch sight of the intruder. A small creature, long and lithe and altogether white except for two huge black eyes and a black tip at the end of its tail, emerges from beneath the ride-on mower, slinks into plain view, rears up on its hind legs, and stares at me. It’s a weasel of some sort. I’m struck at once by its beauty. This animal is agile, supple, and alert. Despite my total ignorance of weasels, I decide that this one is female. She stares at me with interest but without any sign of alarm. I realize just then what has drawn her out: a bag of frozen garbage that I had carelessly left on the garage floor the previous night. One corner is now chewed open. This little beast has clearly been exploring the trash. Even as I watch, she scampers over to the bag, pokes her head inside, and returns to pilfering whatever she can extract. I step closer. She startles at once and darts under the mower. There’s no sign of her for several minutes. Impatient, I return to my task of stocking firewood. Each time I return to the garage, however, I find her exploring the garbage, so I walk over, surprise her with my approach, pick up the bag, and remove it. My later visits to the garage show her still present as she attempts to figure out what happened to her smörgasbord.

It’s clear to me that I can’t let this animal remain here. For all I know, she is the source of the scratching sounds that Edith and I heard on the second floor. Spotting one such creature probably means that others are present––an entire family, even. Very well, then: they have to go. But I decide on the spot that there’s no way I’ll set a spring trap and risk killing this splendid creature. I don’t have a non-lethal trap small enough to catch such a tiny animal, however, so I’ll have to obtain one. Since I’ll be leaving Vermont in just a few hours, I realize there’s nothing to be done until I return.  I simply have to trust that with the bag of garbage now gone, this snow-white intruder will simply withdraw to the natural habitat whose color she so fully and beautifully mimics.

IMG_1885 - Version 3

Ice of the Month Club – Shipment #2

Yesterday morning, Edith and I awoke to find the sky clear and the hillside luminous white. But “luminous” doesn’t even begin to describe the combined intensity and subtlety of what we saw.  The woods beyond our meadow weren’t so much illuminated by light as made of light.  I ventured outside to find out why.  The reason:  all the trees were covered with tiny accretions of ice.  Not snowflakes, not frost, not sheaths . . . but, instead, countless delicate structures that had formed on everything overnight.  Multiply 2,000-5,000 twigs per tree times half a million trees visible from Hyland Hill and you have a radiant hillside at dawn.

So, this month’s shipment from the Ice of the Month Club is this 6-inch twig and what it brings with it:

ice #3

Night Fliers (Part 2)

A Moth the hue of this
Haunts Candles in Brazil.
Nature’s Experience would make
Our Reddest Second pale.

Nature is fond, I sometimes think,
Of Trinkets, as a Girl.

—Emily Dickinson [1]

scarlet_tiger_2068_chris_manley_high_res-webPoetry is aflutter with moths. (One could easily assemble Of Wings and Flames: The Singed Moth Anthology.) By contrast, moths flit only now and then into novels and stories. The American humorist James Thurber, writing in Fables for Our Time (1939), offers this revisionist tale:

 Source:  James Thurber. Fables for Our Time.


Source: James Thurber. Fables for Our Time.

A young and impressionable moth once set his heart on a certain star. He told his mother about this and she counseled him to set his heart on a bridge lamp instead. “Stars aren’t the thing to hang around,” she said; “lamps are the thing to hang around.” “You get somewhere that way,” said the moth’s father. “You don’t get anywhere chasing stars.” But the moth would not heed the words of either parent. Every evening at dusk when the star came out he would start flying toward it and every morning at dawn he would crawl back home worn out with his vain endeavor.

The moth’s parents criticize him for his lack of practical ambition: “You haven’t burned a wing in months, boy, and it looks to me as if you were never going to. . . . Come on, now, get out of here and get yourself scorched! A big strapping moth like you without a mark on him!” Instead of responding to these imprecations, however, the moth continued to pursue his absurd ambition.

He went right on trying to reach the star, which was four and one-third light years, or twenty-five trillion miles, away. The moth thought it was just caught up in the top branches of an elm. He never did reach the star, but he went right on trying, night after night, and when he was a very, very old moth he began to think that he really had reached the star and he went around saying so. This gave him a deep and lasting pleasure, and he lived to a great old age. His parents and his brothers and his sisters had all been burned to death when they were quite young.

The moral of the story: Who flies afar from the sphere of our sorrow is here today and here tomorrow. [2]

◊    ◊    ◊

Nabokov - butterfliesThe most butterfly- and moth-obsessed writer in all of literature is Vladimir Nabokov. Long before he published Lolita, Pale Fire, Pnin, or any of his other groundbreaking novels, he wrote articles (both in Russian and English) about butterflies. His first publication in English was an article titled “A Few Notes on Crimean Lepidoptera”; he published many technical papers of butterflies and moths; he became an expert in the group of small, brightly colored butterflies known as blues; and he spent six years as a professional lepidopterist at Harvard’s Museum of Comparative Zoology—a period that he described later as “the most delightful and thrilling in all my adult life.” He became so engrossed in his meticulous work on the taxonomy of butterflies that his wife, Vera, had to prod him at one point to resume work on an unfinished novel. Nabokov felt intensely torn between literature and lepidopterology. In 1967, Nabokov commented: “The pleasures and rewards of literary inspiration are nothing beside the rapture of discovering a new organ under the microscope or an undescribed species on a mountainside in Iran or Peru. It is not improbable that had there been no revolution in Russia, I would have devoted myself entirely to lepidopterology and never written any novels at all.” [3]

karnerbluebutterflyHis novels contain multiple references to butterflies. Pnin contains a passage that describes the Karner Blue species that obsessed him: “A score of small butterflies, all of one kind, were settled on a damp patch of sand, their wings erect and closed, showing their pale undersides with dark dots and tiny orange-rimmed peacock spots along the hindwing margins; one of Pnin’s shed rubbers disturbed some of them and, revealing the celestial hue of their upper surface, they fluttered around like blue snowflakes before settling again.” [3]  But what about moths? Nabokov’s letters include references to these insects, including one from August of 1942 in which he instructs the literary critic Edmund Wilson, of all people, on how to attract these insects. “[Y]ou mix: a bottle of stale beer, two pounds of brown sugar (or treacle) and a little rum (added just before applying); then just before dusk you smear . . . a score of tree trunks . . . with the concoction and wait. They will come from nowhere, settling on the glistening bark and showing their crimson underwings. . . .” Addressing Wilson by his nickname, Nabokov adds this exhortation: “Try, Bunny, it is the noblest sport in the world.” [4]  (Whether Wilson followed these suggestions and dipped into his ample supply of liquor isn’t evident in the literary record.) Despite Nabokov’s clear interest in moths, I’ve found no description of them anywhere in his fiction; even this most lepidoptera-obsessed of authors allowed only butterflies into the pages of his novels.

 ◊    ◊    ◊

Just now,
Out of the strange
Still dusk . . . as strange, as still . . .
A white moth flew . . . Why am I grown
So cold?

        —Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1914) [5]

 ◊    ◊    ◊

 Source:  commons.wikipedia.org


Source: commons.wikipedia.org

Virginia Woolf, writing in “The Death of the Moth” (published in 1942, one year after her suicide), created a dark, fable-like essay. Woolf begins by describing the autumnal vitality beyond her window––the plowman tilling the fields, the crows soaring above the treetops, the light shining on the downs––and then, in this idyllic setting, she notes her awareness of a moth on the windowpane.

“One could not help watching him. . . . The possibilities of pleasure seemed that morning so enormous and so various that to have only a moth’s part in life . . . appeared a hard fate, and his zest in enjoying his meager opportunities to the full, pathetic. He flew vigorously to one corner of his compartment, and, after waiting there a second, flew across to the other. What remained for him but to fly to a third corner and then to a fourth?”

But pity isn’t her only response:

Watching him, it seemed as if a fiber, very thin but pure, of the enormous energy of the world had been thrust into his frail and diminutive body. . . . He was little or nothing but life. Yet, because he was so small, and so simple a form of the energy that was rolling in at the open window and driving its way through so many narrow and intricate corridors in my own brain and in those of other human beings, there was something marvelous as well as pathetic about him. It was as if someone had taken a tiny bead of pure life and decking it as lightly as possible with down and feathers, had set it dancing and zigzagging to show us the true nature of life.

Soon, however, something intervenes to quench this spark.

He was trying to resume his dancing, but seemed either so stiff or so awkward that he could only flutter to the bottom of the window pane; and when he tried to fly across it he failed. . . . After perhaps a seventh attempt he slipped from the wooden ledge and fell, fluttering his wings, onto his back on the window sill. . . . It flashed upon me that he was in difficulties; he could no longer raise himself; his legs struggled vainly. But, as I stretched out a pencil, meaning to help him to right himself, it came over me that the failure and the awkwardness were the approach of death. I laid down the pencil again.

Woolf realizes that for unknown reasons, the life force so evident everywhere beyond the window has somehow abandoned the small creature.

[T]he power was there all the same, massed outside, indifferent, impersonal, not attending to anything in particular. Somehow it was opposed to the little hay-colored moth. It was useless to try to do anything. One could only watch the extraordinary efforts made by those tiny legs against an oncoming doom which could, had it chosen, have submerged an entire city, not merely a city, but masses of human beings; nothing, I knew had any chance against death. . . . [T]he unmistakable tokens of death showed themselves. The body relaxed, and instantly grew stiff. The struggle was over. The insignificant little creature now knew death. As I looked at the dead moth, this minute wayside triumph of so great a force over so mean and antagonist filled me with wonder. Just as life had been strange a few minutes before, so death was now is strange. The moth having righted himself now lay most decently and uncomplainingly composed. O yes, he seemed to say, death is stronger than I am. [6]

The moral of the story? It is simply Mors vincit omnia? Or perhaps merely a novelist’s compassion for a tiny creature? At the time of her writing “The Death of the Moth,” Woolf surely also let her mind roam beyond the idyllic English countryside to occupied Europe, where Hitler had unleashed “an oncoming doom which [had] submerged an entire city, not merely a city, but masses of human beings.” Her long struggle with madness intensified––she suffered from what would now be diagnosed as bipolar disorder––and a severe depressive episode, allied with “so great a force over so mean an antagonist,” soon compelled her to fill her coat pockets with stones and wade into the River Ouse.

◊    ◊    ◊

The Moth

Isled in the midnight air,
Musked with the dark’s faint bloom,
Out into glooming and secret haunts
The flame cries, ‘Come!’

Lovely in dye and fan,
A-tremble in shimmering grace,
A moth from her winter swoon
Uplifts her face:

Stares from her glamorous eyes;
Wafts her on plumes like mist;
In ecstasy swirls and sways
To her strange tryst.

––Walter de la Mare [7]

◊    ◊    ◊

DSC_3656-cecropia-moth

How remarkable that we pay attention to moths chiefly, if not exclusively, because of their strange, disturbing, inadvertently suicidal attraction to flames and other lights. Never mind that somewhere between 150,000 and 250,000 moth species exist, ten times the number of butterfly species. [8]  Never mind that among these species are innumerable creatures of great beauty, grace, and ecological benefit. It’s analogous to regarding dogs as remarkable and fascinating simply because of their tendency to run into the road and get struck by cars. On the other hand: if moths didn’t exist, we would have to invent them. By what other means would we have such a powerful, readily available metaphor to describe fatal attraction resulting from sexual, political, financial, artistic, or spiritual impulses?

*   *   *

Notes

[1] Emily Dickinson. The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson, Thomas H. Johnson, ed. New York: Little Brown and Company, 1961.

Moth photo credit:  Butterfly Conservation.org:
http://butterfly-conservation.org/51-1492/scarlet-tiger.html

[2] James Thurber. Fables for Our Time. New York: Harper Perennial; Harper Colophon, 1939; 1983.

V. Nabokov photo credit:  Life Magazine.

Karner Blue photo: U.S. Forest Service: http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/pollinator-of-the-month/karner_blue_butterfly.shtml

[3] Herbert Gold. “Vladimir Nabokov, The Art of Fiction.” The Paris Review. Summer-Fall 1967.

[4] Simon Karlinsky, ed. The Nabokov-Wilson Letters, 1940-1971. New York: Harper & Row, 1979.

[5] Adelaide Crapsey. The Complete Poems and Collected Letters of Adelaide Crapsey, Sutton Smith, Susan, ed. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1977.

[6] Virginia Woolf. Death of the Moth and Other Essays. New York: Harcourt Brace and Jovanovich, 1974.

In a note to her husband, Leonard Woolf, written shortly before her death, Virginia explained why she would take the action that soon followed:

Dearest, I feel certain that I am going mad again. I feel we can’t go through another of those terrible times. And I shan’t recover this time. I begin to hear voices, and I can’t concentrate. So I am doing what seems the best thing to do. You have given me the greatest possible happiness. You have been in every way all that anyone could be. I don’t think two people could have been happier ’til this terrible disease came. I can’t fight any longer. I know that I am spoiling your life, that without me you could work. And you will I know. You see I can’t even write this properly. I can’t read. What I want to say is I owe all the happiness of my life to you. You have been entirely patient with me and incredibly good. I want to say that – everybody knows it. If anybody could have saved me it would have been you. Everything has gone from me but the certainty of your goodness. I can’t go on spoiling your life any longer. I don’t think two people could have been happier than we have been. V.

[7] Walter de la Mare. Collected Poems 1901-1918. [City unknown:] Qontro Classic Books, 2010.

[8] David Beadle and Seabrooke Leckie. Peterson Field Guide to Moths of Northeastern North America. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012.